0.80). RESULTS: Index patients experienced more anxiety and depression, had more cardiac symptoms, but showed no differences in left ventricular ejection fraction status or extent of ICD discharges compared with non-index patients. Forty-five patients (30.6%) died during the follow-up period. The relative mortality risk (multivariate adjusted for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, left ventricular ejection fraction, beta-blocker prescription, prior resuscitation, ICD shocks received, depression, and anxiety) hazard ratio was 3.45 (95% confidence interval, 1.57-7.60; P = .002) for the PTSD group. Compared with 55 fatal events per 1000 person-years in patients without PTSD, the long-term absolute mortality risk accounted for 80 fatal events per 1000 person-years in patients with PTSD. CONCLUSION: The adverse effect of PTSD symptoms on the long-term mortality risk in ICD-treated cardiac event survivors, independent of disease severity, supports the need for routinely applied interdisciplinary psychosocial aftercare."/>
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Document type:
Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Article 
Ladwig, KH; Baumert, J; Marten-Mittag, B; Kolb, C; Zrenner, B; Schmitt, C 
Posttraumatic stress symptoms and predicted mortality in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: results from the prospective living with an implanted cardioverter-defibrillator study. 
CONTEXT: Cardiac disease and treatment with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) may be psychologically traumatic. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is generally overlooked in cardiac patients, and no study to date (to our knowledge) has evaluated the effect of PTSD symptoms on the prognosis in patients with ICDs. OBJECTIVE: To test whether PTSD symptoms at baseline predict long-term mortality risk in patients with ICDs. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with a mean follow-up period...    »
Journal title abbreviation:
Arch Gen Psychiatry 
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TUM Institution:
I. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik (Kardiologie); Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie