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Document type:
journal article 
Herbst, Elmar; Imhoff, Florian B; Foehr, Peter; Milz, Stefan; Plank, Christian; Rudolph, Carsten; Hasenpusch, Günther; Geiger, Johannes P; Aneja, Manish K; Groth, Karoline; Vogt, Stephan; Imhoff, Andreas B; Schmitt, Andreas 
Chemically Modified Messenger RNA: Modified RNA Application for Treatment of Achilles Tendon Defects. 
Different regenerative medicine approaches for tendon healing exist. Recently, especially gene therapy gained popularity. However, potential mutagenic and immunologic effects might prevent its translation to clinical research. Chemically modified mRNA (cmRNA) might bypass these limitations of gene therapy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the early healing properties of Achilles tendon defects in rats treated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) cmRNA. Forty male Lewis rats were used for the study and randomly assigned to two study groups: (1) treatment with cmRNA coding for bFGF and (2) noncoding cmRNA control. Protein expression was measured using in vivo bioluminescence imaging at 24, 48, and 72 h, as well as 14 days. Animals were euthanized 2 weeks following surgery. Biomechanical, histological, and immunohistological analyses were performed with the significance level set at p< 0.05. Protein expression was evident for 3 days. At 14 days, bioluminescence imaging revealed only little protein expression. Biomechanically, tendons treated with bFGF cmRNA showed a construct stiffness closer to the healthy contralateral side when compared with the control group (p = 0.034), without any significant differences in terms of load to failure. Hematoxylin and eosin staining detected no side effects of the treatment, as signs of inflammation, or necrosis. Furthermore, it revealed the shape of the nuclei to be more oval in the bFGF group in the tendon midsubstance (p = 0.043) with a reduced cell count (p = 0.035). Immunohistological staining for type I, II, III, and IV collagen did not differ significantly between the two groups. In conclusion, this pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of a novel messenger RNA (mRNA)-based therapy for Achilles tendon defects using chemically modified mRNA coding for bFGF. 
Journal title abbreviation:
Tissue Eng Part A 
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TUM Institution:
Abteilung für Sportorthopädie