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Original title:
Urban Road Transport Emissions and Potential for Reducing Emissions by Electric Vehicles
Original subtitle:
Case Study of Singapore
Translated title:
Emissionen des städtischen Straßenverkehrs und Minderungspotenziale durch Elektrofahrzeuge
Translated subtitle:
Fallstudie von Singapur
Jinca, Dwiyanti Arimbi
Document type:
TUM School of Engineering and Design
Wulfhorst, Gebhard (Prof. Dr.)
Wulfhorst, Gebhard (Prof. Dr.); Wong, Yiik Diew (Assoc. Prof., Ph.D.)
Subject group:
BAU Bauingenieurwesen, Vermessungswesen
Road Transport, Emissions, Emission Modellings, Electric Vehicles, Singapore
Translated keywords:
Straßenverkehr, Emissionen, Emissionsmodellierung, Elektrofahrzeuge, Singapur
TUM classification:
RPL 860; RPL 641
Road transport is one of the fastest-growing sectors contributing significantly to air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially in urban areas where exceedances of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matters (PM) values are frequent. These pollutants have clear health implications and indicate the need to plan and implement effective measures (such as introducing electric vehicles) to reduce road vehicles’ emissions. Emissions estimation from road transport could be applied using an emission model. However, the emission model reflecting Singapore’s local conditions is not yet available, and there are only limited emissions quantification efforts over the last few decades. This research aims to analyse how and to what extent the existing emission models apply to Singapore’s urban area emissions estimation. This aim is accompanied by vehicle fleet development and emission inventory estimation for 2004-2019, the identification of aggregated emissions factors (EFs) from air quality measurements at the Kallang Paya-Lebar (KPE) tunnel expressway and estimation of potential emissions reduction of electric vehicles (EV) scenario (up to 2050). The emissions loads for all pollutants showed a decreasing trend from 2004-2019. This result comes from the series of transportation policies such as vehicle growth control by way of vehicle quota system (VQS) and vehicle ownership in terms of the certificate of entitlement (COE) (which results in a high turnover rate of vehicles) and a combination of fiscal measures (e.g., vehicle taxes). A clear reduction trend was found for pollutants of carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOC), with passenger cars (PCs) and motorcycles (MCs) being the primary sources. Meanwhile, NOx, PM10 and PM2.5 emissions, which are mainly released by diesel vehicles, gradually decreased despite increasing the vehicle population using diesel and its transport activities. A comparison of bottom-up and top-down carbon dioxide (CO2) estimation showed less agreement, with a difference of 20% due to some limitations. The methodology, results and conclusions may apply to neighbouring cities in South-East Asia. The aggregated EF was derived from the KPE tunnel measurement in 2015 showed CO=1.46 g/veh-km and NO=0.26 g/veh-km. These values are compared from previous studies performed in other tunnels globally. It was evident that both CO and NO EFs are at a low-level range. Still, some parts need to be improved in future EFs development in a tunnel and other measurements. Potential air pollutants and emissions reduction by penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) are estimated using COPERT emissions model under four scenarios; baseline, the basic scenario (S1), the medium scenario (S2) and the most ambitious scenarios (S3). Significant emissions reduction potential for 2050 is identified in scenario 3, with a reduction of 83%, 96%, 85% in CO, VOC and CO2. NOx reduction is estimated at 66%, while for PM, the reduction is predicted to have less reduction (<50%) due to the still high share of non-exhaust emissions. The results provide a basis and support for additional policies to promote and manage EVs. Besides, insights into improving the air quality are offered to support the global climate change issue.
Translated abstract:
Der Straßenverkehr ist einer der am schnellsten wachsenden Sektoren, der erheblich zur Luftverschmutzung und zu Treibhausgasemissionen beiträgt. Dies gilt insbesondere in städtischen Gebieten, in denen die Überschreitung von Stickoxiden (NOx) und Feinstaub (PM) häufig ist. Die Schadstoffe haben Auswirkungen auf die Gesundheit und somit empfehlen sich wirksame Maßnahmen, wie zum Beispiel die Einführung von Elektrofahrzeugen, zur Reduzierung der Emissionen von Straßenfahrzeugen. Die Emissionsschät...     »
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