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Dezelak, M.; Zarnkow, M.; Becker, T.; Kosir, I. J. 
Processing of bottom-fermented gluten-free beer-like beverages based on buckwheat and quinoa malt with chemical and sensory characterization 
Typical beer contains significant amount of gluten, and being the third most popular beverage worldwide, the commercial production of its gluten-free form is of rising interest. This research aimed to prepare bottom-fermented beverages from buckwheat and quinoa and to explore their physical, chemical and sensory properties. Compared with barley, the analysis of brewing attributes of buckwheat and quinoa showed a lower malt extracts, longer saccharification times, higher total protein and fermentable amino nitrogen content and higher values of the iodine test and colour. Fermentability values, the wort pH and the soluble protein content were similar for barley and buckwheat, but different for quinoa, whereas only values of viscosity and beverage pH were similar between barley and quinoa. Both beverages, especially the quinoa beverage, contained a superior level of metal cations. The fermentable carbohydrate content in the buckwheat wort was comparable to barley but lower in quinoa; however, worts derived from both pseudocereals contained predominantly glucose. The amino acid content of the buckwheat wort was similar to barley, whereas the content in the quinoa beverage was almost twice as high. The content of volatile compounds commonly associated with beer aroma was comparable between the barley and buckwheat beverage but significantly lower in the quinoa; however, the latter contained some distinctive volatile substances not found in the other beverages. The organoleptic perception of the buckwheat beverage was better than that of the quinoa, although both showed a good general acceptance. In general, buckwheat appears quite similar to barley, whereas quinoa shows many unique properties. Copyright (c) 2014 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling 
Journal of the Institute of Brewing 
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Dezelak, Matjaz Zarnkow, Martin Becker, Thomas Kosir, Iztok Joze Dezelak, Matjaz/H-3935-2011 Dezelak, Matjaz/0000-0002-9298-4582 2050-0416