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journal article 
Malik, R; Bungay, A; Sadiq, A; Brown, D; Riemann, M; Choudhury, S; Schmid, R; Selden, C; Hodgson, H 
The role of the Bcl-3 proto-oncogene in thyroid hormone-induced liver cell proliferation. 
The aim of the study was to determine if thyroid hormone-induced liver cell proliferation occurs through the Bcl-3 proto-oncogene. Rodents (including Bcl-3 knockout mice and the wild-type strain) were injected with a single dose of tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) and sacrificed at various time points. Hepatic mRNA (real-time polymerase chain reaction ) and protein expression (Western analysis) of Bcl-3 was quantified in rats stimulated with T(3). Cell proliferation was induced in a variety of cell types after T(3) injection at 24 h including hepatocytes (7 +/- 1.1% vs. 0.45 +/- 0.025%; P< 0.01), hepatic nonparenchymal cells (3.8 +/- 1.2% vs. 0.3 +/- 0.01%; P< 0.01), renal tubular cells (8.1 +/- 1.6% vs. 0.2 +/- 0.035%; P< 0.01), and splenic lymphocytes (4.8 +/- 1.2% vs. 0.35 +/- 0.02%; P< 0.01). We showed a twofold increase in hepatic Bcl-3 mRNA (P< 0.01) and protein expression (P< 0.01) at 24 h in rats stimulated with T(3). However, there were no differences in the rate of liver cell proliferation between Bcl-3 knockout mice and the wild-type strain (0.4 +/- 0.15% vs. 0.3 +/- 0.1%), indicating that Bcl-3 was not functionally involved in thyroid hormone-induced liver cell proliferation. A single gene is unlikely to initiate the process of thyroid hormone-induced cell proliferation. A complex interaction between the genomic and nongenomic effects of thyroid hormone is likely to regulate the mitogenic effects. 
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II. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik