A probe-based electromagnetic navigation system to integrate computed tomography during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.
For preoperative work-up, an examination tool that visualizes separately compiled diagnostics in augmented reality would be desirable. We developed a probe-based electromagnetic navigation system, which can be passed through the working channel of an endoscope, to integrate computed tomography (CT) information during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.The target registration error (TRE) of the system was evaluated experimentally and clinically. A total of 24 study patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer were included in the study. The cancerous lesion was endoscopically located (mean duration 8.4 minutes, range 7.1 - 23.2) and the TRE (coronal, transverse, sagittal layer) was measured by comparing the distance between the navigation probe (at the tip of the endoscope) and the target lesion shown on the corresponding CT cross section.Experimental evaluations showed an accuracy in line with the system's inherent failure rate, with a median TRE of 2.8 mm (IQR 1.8 - 4.3), 2.2 mm (0.4 - 3.7), and 2.8 mm (1.1 - 5.9) in the coronal, transverse, and sagittal planes, respectively. Clinical evaluation revealed a median TRE of 4.8 mm (1.9 - 10.1), 3.9 mm (0.7 - 7.1), and 4.2 mm (0.9 - 8.9), respectively. No complications occurred during navigated endoscopy.The probe-based electromagnetic navigation system revealed high accuracy (TRE< 5 mm), facilitating improved interpretation of endoluminal imaging.