Ejlerskov, P; Christensen, DP; Beyaie, D; Burritt, JB; Paclet, MH; Gorlach, A; van Deurs, B; Vilhardt, F
NADPH oxidase is internalized by clathrin-coated pits and localizes to a Rab27A/B GTPase-regulated secretory compartment in activated macrophages.
Here, we report that activation of different types of tissue macrophages, including microglia, by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or GM-CSF stimulation correlates with the quantitative redistribution of NADPH oxidase (cyt b(558)) from the plasma membrane to an intracellular stimulus-responsive storage compartment. Cryo-immunogold labeling of gp91(phox) and CeCl(3) cytochemistry showed the presence of gp91(phox) and oxidant production in numerous small (<100 nm) vesicles. Cell homogenization and sucrose gradient centrifugation in combination with transferrin-HRP/DAB ablation showed that more than half of cyt b(558) is present in fractions devoid of endosomal markers, which is supported by morphological evidence to show that the cyt b(558)-containing compartment is distinct from endosomes or biosynthetic organelles. Streptolysin-O-mediated guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate loading of Ra2 microglia caused exocytosis of a major complement of cyt b(558) under conditions where lysosomes or endosomes were not mobilized. We establish phagocytic particles and soluble mediators ATP, TNF?, and CD40L as physiological inducers of cyt b(558) exocytosis to the cell surface, and by shRNA knockdown, we identify Rab27A/B as positive or negative regulators of vesicular mobilization to the phagosome or the cell surface, respectively. Exocytosis was followed by clathrin-dependent internalization of cyt b(558), which could be blocked by a dominant negative mutant of the clathrin-coated pit-associated protein Eps15. Re-internalized cyt b(558) did not reach lysosomes but associated with recycling endosomes and undefined vesicular elements. In conclusion, cyt b(558) depends on clathrin for internalization, and in activated macrophages NADPH oxidase occupies a Rab27A/B-regulated secretory compartment, which allows rapid agonist-induced redistribution of superoxide production in the cell.