Teriparatide in bisphosphonate-resistant osteoporosis: microarchitectural changes and clinical results after 6 and 18 months.
A number of osteoporotic patients under bisphosphonate treatment present persistent fragility fractures and bone loss despite good compliance. The objective of this 18-month prospective study was to investigate the effect of teriparatide [rhPTH(1-34)] in 25 female osteoporotics who were inadequate responders to oral bisphosphonates and to correlate microarchitectural changes in three consecutive iliac crest biopsies measured by micro-computed tomography (?CT) with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone serum markers. Scanned biopsies at baseline (M0), 6 months (M6), and 18 months (M18) demonstrated early significant (P< 0.01) increases in bone volume per tissue volume (+34%) and trabecular number (+14%) at M6 with only moderate changes in most ?CT structural parameters between M6 and M18. ?CT-measured bone tissue density was significantly decreased at M18, expressing an overall lower degree of tissue mineralization characteristic for new bone formation despite unchanged trabecular thickness due to increased intratrabecular tunneling at M18. ?CT results were consistent with serum bone turnover markers, reaching maximal levels of bone alkaline phosphatase and serum ?-crosslaps at M6, with subsequent decline until M18. BMD assessed by DXA demonstrated persistent increases at the lumbar spine until M12, whereas no significant change was observed at the hip. Type (alendronate/risedronate) and duration (3.5 ± 4 years) of prior bisphosphonate treatment did not influence outcome on ?CT, BMD, or bone marker results. The overall results indicate a positive ceiling effect of teriparatide on bone microarchitecture and bone markers after 6 and 12 months for lumbar spine BMD, with no additional gain until M18 in bisphosphonate nonresponders.