Link, TM; Saborowski; Kisters, K; Kempkes, M; Kosch, M; Newitt, D; Lu, Y; Waldt, S; Majumdar, S
Changes in calcaneal trabecular bone structure assessed with high-resolution MR imaging in patients with kidney transplantation.
The purpose of this study was to use high-resolution magnetic resonance (HR-MR) imaging to analyze the trabecular bone structure of the calcaneus in patients before and after renal transplantation and to compare this technique with bone mineral density (BMD) in predicting therapy-induced bone loss and osteoporotic fracture status. HR-MR imaging (voxel size: 0.195 x 0.195 x 1 mm) was performed at 1.5 T with an axial and sagittal orientation in 48 patients after transplantation, 12 patients before renal transplantation and 20 healthy controls. Structure measures analogous to standard histomorphometry and fractal dimension were determined in these images. BMD measurements of the lumbar spine and the proximal femur were obtained in the healthy female controls and the patients. Vertebral and peripheral fracture status were determined in all patients. The structural measures app.BV/TV, Tb.Sp, Tb.Th and Tb.N showed significant differences between controls and patients (p<0.05) while fractal dimension showed no significant differences. Neither the structural measures nor BMD showed significant differences between patients before and after transplantation. Correlations between time after transplantation versus structural measures and BMD were not significant. Differences between fracture and nonfracture patients were significant for the structural measures app.BV/TV, Tb.Sp and Tb.N (axial images) as well as for app.Tb.Th (sagittal images) and spine BMD (p<0.05) but not for hip BMD. Using odds ratios the strongest discriminators between patients with and without fractures were app. BV/TV, app.Tb.Sp (axial images) and app.Tb.Th (sagittal images), even after adjustment for age and BMD. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis the highest diagnostic performance was found for a combination of BMD and structural measures. In conclusion, our results indicate that structural measures obtained from HR-MR images may be used to characterize fracture incidence in kidney transplant patients; the best results, however, are obtained using a combination of BMD and structural measures.