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journal article 
Lahmer, Tobias; da Costa, Clarissa Prazeres; Held, Jürgen; Rasch, Sebastian; Ehmer, Ursula; Schmid, Roland M; Huber, Wolfgang 
Usefulness of 1,3 Beta-D-Glucan Detection in non-HIV Immunocompromised Mechanical Ventilated Critically Ill Patients with ARDS and Suspected Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia. 
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a major cause of disease in immunocompromised individuals. Diagnosis is typically obtained by microscopy and/or PCR. For ambiguous PCR results, we evaluated the new biomarker 1,3-Beta-D-Glucan (BDG).BDG serum levels were assessed and correlated to PCR results in immunosuppressed patients with ARDS.11 (22%) out of 50 patients had suspected PCP. APACHE II (26 vs. 24; p< 0.002), SOFA score (16 vs. 14; p< 0.010) and mortality rate (34 vs. 69% p< 0.004; 34 vs. 80% p< 0.003) were significantly altered in patients with positive (pPCR) and slightly positive (spPCR) PCJ PCR as compared to patients with no-PCP (nPCP). BDG levels were significantly lower in patients with nPCP (86; 30-315 pg/ml) than in patients with pPCR (589; 356-1000 pg/ml; p< 0.001) and spPCP (398; 297-516 pg/ml; p< 0.004) referring to the cutoff in this study for PCP of 275 pg/ml. An overall sensitivity (S) of 92% (95% CI 86-96%) and specificity (SP) of 84% (95% CI 79-85%) for PCP were found for the BDG Fungitell assay. In detail, S of 98% (95% CI 94-100%) and SP of 86% (95% CI 82-92%) for pPCP and S of 98% (95% CI 96-100%) and SP of 88% (95% CI 86-96%) for spPCO were found.Serum BDG levels were strongly elevated in PCP, and the negative predictive value is high. BDG could be used as a preliminary test for patients with suspected PCP, especially in patients with slightly positive PCR results. 
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Klinik und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin II; Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Immunologie und Hygiene