Riedmaier, Stefan; Danquah, Benedikt; Schick, Bernhard; Diermeyer, Frank
Unified Framework and Survey for Model Verification, Validation and Uncertainty Quantification
Simulation is becoming increasingly important in the development, testing and approval process in many areas of engineering, ranging from finite element models to highly complex cyber-physical systems such as autonomous cars. Simulation must be accompanied by model verification, validation and uncertainty quantification (VV&UQ) activities to assess the inherent errors and uncertainties of each simulation model. However, the VV&UQ methods differ greatly between the application areas. In general, a major challenge is the aggregation of uncertainties from calibration and validation experiments to the actual model predictions under new, untested conditions. This is especially relevant due to high extrapolation uncertainties, if the experimental conditions differ strongly from the prediction conditions, or if the output quantities required for prediction cannot be measured during the experiments. In this paper, both the heterogeneous VV&UQ landscape and the challenge of aggregation will be addressed with a novel modular and unified framework to enable credible decision making based on simulation models. This paper contains a comprehensive survey of over 200 literature sources from many application areas and embeds them into the unified framework. In addition, this paper analyzes and compares the VV&UQ methods and the application areas in order to identify strengths and weaknesses and to derive further research directions. The framework thus combines a variety of VV&UQ methods, so that different engineering areas can benefit from new methods and combinations. Finally, this paper presents a procedure to select a suitable method from the framework for the desired application.
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