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journal article 
Schwarzenböck, Sarah Marie; Gertz, Jana; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Kurth, Jens; Sachs, David; Nawroth, Roman; Treiber, Uwe; Schuster, Tibor; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard; Schwaiger, Markus; Ziegler, Sibylle Ilse; Henriksen, Gjermund; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Krause, Bernd Joachim 
Comparison of [¹¹C]choline ([¹¹C]CHO) and S(+)-?-methyl-[¹¹C]choline ([¹¹C]SMC) as imaging probes for prostate cancer in a PC-3 prostate cancer xenograft model. 
Carbon-11- and fluorine-18-labeled choline derivatives have been introduced as promising tracers for prostate cancer imaging. However, due to limited specificity and sensitivity, there is a need for new tracers with higher sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing prostate cancer to improve tracer uptake and enhance imaging contrast. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of [(11)C]choline ([(11)C]CHO) with S(+)-?-methyl-[(11)C]choline ([(11)C]SMC) as tracer for prostate cancer imaging in a human prostate tumor mouse xenograft model by small-animal positron emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography (PET/CT).We carried out a dual-tracer small-animal PET/CT study comparing [(11)C]CHO and [(11)C]SMC. The androgen-independent human prostate tumor cell line PC3 was implanted subcutaneously in the flanks of Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) (nu/nu) mice (n = 11). Mice-6 weeks post-xenograft implantation-were injected with 37 MBq [(11)C]CHO via the tail vein. On a separate day, the mice wereinjected with 37 MBq [(11)C]SMC. Dynamic imaging was performed for 60 min with the Inveon animal PET/CT scanner (Siemens Medical Solutions) on two separate days (randomizing the sequence of the tracers). The dynamic PET images were acquired in list mode. Regions of interest (5 × 5 × 5 mm) were placed in transaxial slices in tumor, muscle (thigh), liver, kidney, and blood. Image analysis was performed calculating tumor to muscle (T/M) ratios based on summed images as well as dynamic data.For [(11)C]SMC, the mean T/M ratio was 2.24 ± 0.56 while the corresponding mean [(11)C]CHO T/M ratio was 1.35 ± 0.28. The T/M ratio for [(11)C]SMC was significant higher compared to [(11)C]CHO (p< 0.001). The time course of T/M ratio (T/Mdyn ratio) of [(11)C]SMC was higher compared to [(11)C]CHO with a statistically significant difference between the magnitudes of the T/M ratios and a significant different change of the T/M ratios over time between [(11)C]CHO and [(11)C]SMC.Our results demonstrate that [(11)C]SMC is taken up by the tumor in the PC-3 prostate cancer xenograft model. [(11)C]SMC uptake was significantly higher compared to the clinically utilized [(11)C]CHO tracer with a higher contrast allowing imaging of a prostate cancer xenograft. 
Journal title abbreviation:
Mol Imaging Biol 
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TUM Institution:
Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik; Urologische Klinik und Poliklinik