Schulz, RJ; Bischoff, SC; Koletzko, B; Working group for developing the guidelines for parenteral nutrition of The German Association for Nutritional Medicine
Gastroenterology - Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 15.
In patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis parenteral nutrition (PN) is indicated when enteral nutrition is not possible or should be avoided for medical reasons. In Crohn's patients PN is indicated when there are signs/symptoms of ileus or subileus in the small intestine, scars or intestinal fistulae. PN requires no specific compounding for chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. In both diseases it should be composed of 55-60% carbohydrates, 25-30% lipids and 10-15% amino acids. PN helps in the correction of malnutrition, particularly the intake of energy, minerals, trace elements, deficiency of calcium, vitamin D, folic acid, vitamin B12, and zinc. Enteral nutrition is clearly superior to PN in severe, acute pancreatitis. An intolerance to enteral nutrition results in an indication for total PN in complications such as pseudocysts, intestinal and pancreatic fistulae, and pancreatic abscesses or pancreatic ascites. If enteral nutrition is not possible, PN is recommended, at the earliest, 5 days after admission to the hospital. TPN should not be routinely administered in mild acute pancreatitis or nil by moth status<7 days, due to high costs and an increased risk of infection. The energy requirements are between 25 and 35 kcal/kg body weight/day. A standard solution including lipids (monitoring triglyceride levels!) can be administered in acute pancreatitis. Glucose (max. 4-5 g/kg body weight/day) and amino acids (about 1.2-1.5 g/kg body weight/day) should be administered and the additional enrichment of TPN with glutamine should be considered in severe, progressive forms of pancreatitis.