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journal article 
Franz, Daniela; Diefenbach, Maximilian N; Treibel, Franziska; Weidlich, Dominik; Syväri, Jan; Ruschke, Stefan; Wu, Mingming; Holzapfel, Christina; Drabsch, Theresa; Baum, Thomas; Eggers, Holger; Rummeny, Ernst J; Hauner, Hans; Karampinos, Dimitrios C 
Differentiating supraclavicular from gluteal adipose tissue based on simultaneous PDFF and T * mapping using a 20-echo gradient-echo acquisition. 
Adipose tissue (AT) can be classified into white and brown/beige subtypes. Chemical shift encoding-based water-fat MRI-techniques allowing simultaneous mapping of proton density fat fraction (PDFF) and T * result in a lower PDFF and a shorter T * in brown compared with white AT. However, AT T * values vary widely in the literature and are primarily based on 6-echo data. Increasing the number of echoes in a multiecho gradient-echo acquisition is expected to increase the precision of AT T * mapping.1) To mitigate issues of current T *-measurement techniques through experimental design, and 2) to investigate gluteal and supraclavicular AT T * and PDFF and their relationship using a 20-echo gradient-echo acquisition.Prospective.Twenty-one healthy subjects.First, a ground truth signal evolution was simulated from a single-T * water-fat model. Second, a time-interleaved 20-echo gradient-echo sequence with monopolar gradients of neck and abdomen/pelvis at 3 T was performed in vivo to determine supraclavicular and gluteal PDFF and T *. Complex-based water-fat separation was performed for the first 6 echoes and the full 20 echoes. AT depots were segmented.Mann-Whitney test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and simple linear regression analysis.Both PDFF and T * differed significantly between supraclavicular and gluteal AT with 6 and 20 echoes (PDFF: P< 0.0001 each, T *: P = 0.03 / P< 0.0001 for 6/20 echoes). 6-echo T * demonstrated higher standard deviations and broader ranges than 20-echo T *. Regression analyses revealed a strong relationship between PDFF and T * values per AT compartment (R = 0.63 supraclavicular, R = 0.86 gluteal, P< 0.0001 each).The present findings suggest that an increase in the number of sampled echoes beyond 6 does not affect AT PDFF quantification, whereas AT T * is considerably affected. Thus, a 20-echo gradient-echo acquisition enables a multiparametric analysis of both AT PDFF and T * and may therefore improve MR-based differentiation between white and brown fat.2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019. 
Journal title abbreviation:
J Magn Reson Imaging 
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TUM Institution:
Institut für Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Klinik für Ernährungsmedizin