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Mesagno, Chris; Gröpel, Peter; Wergin, Vanessa V.; Beckmann, Jürgen 
Primed to perform: Testing and comparing pre-performance routine interventions to alleviate choking in sport. 
Introduction A pre-performance routine (PPR) is a set of cognitive and behavioral elements an athlete engages in before performance execution (Cotterill, 2010). Researchers have identified ex-tensive PPR development and hemispheric priming (Beckmann, Gröpel, & Ehrenspiel, 2013) improve performance under pressure (e.g., Mesagno & Mullane-Grant, 2010) but a comparison study has not been conducted. The purpose of this study was to compare hem-ispheric priming with an extensive PPR in improving tenpin bowling accuracy and in-game performance. We also tested a combined PPR and hemispheric priming group to determine their summative effects. We expected all intervention groups to increase accuracy, con-sistency, and in-game performance from pre- to post-intervention. Method Forty-nine experienced bowlers were allocated to one of four intervention groups (PPR, hemispheric priming, combined PPR and hemispheric priming, temporal consistency), or control group (no intervention training). Participants then took part in a low-pressure, inter-vention development (if in an intervention group), and high-pressure phases, with accuracy and in-game performance (i.e., bowling scores) the dependent, performance variables. Results There were no significant Phase (F(1, 44) =.29, p = .60, ηp2 = .01) or Group (F(4, 44) = 1.34, p = .27, ηp2 = .11) main effects, but a significant interaction was found for perfor-mance accuracy, F(4, 44) = 2.93, p = .03, partial ηp2 = .21. Post hoc comparisons indicated that the PPR group improved performance from pre- to post-intervention phase, and the control group decreased bowling accuracy. Bowling league performance results indicated no significant main (ps > .30), or interaction, F(4, 43) = 1.89, p = .13, ηp2 = .15, effects. Discussion Extensive PPR development is the most effective routine for performance under pressure, with hemispheric priming also having a positive effect on accuracy under pressure. Future research and practical sport psychology application will be discussed. 
A. Schwirtz, F. Mess, Y. Demetriou & V. Senner 
Book / Congress title:
Innovation und Technologie im Sport 
Congress (additional information):
Deutsche Vereinigung für Sportwissenschaft (dvs), 23. Sportwissenschaftlicher Hochschultag 2017 
Date of congress:
Hamburg: Feldhaus 
SS 17