Dezelak, M.; Gebremariam, M. M.; Zarnkow, M.; Becker, T.; Kosir, I. J.
Part I: the influence of serial repitching of Saccharomyces pastorianus on the uptake dynamics of metal ions and fermentable carbohydrates during the fermentation of barley and gluten-free buckwheat and quinoa wort
The present paper is the last report of a comprehensive study regarding the influence of the serial repitching of Saccharomyces pastorianus TUM 34/70 on the composition of a barley, buckwheat or quinoa fermentation medium. In particular, it focuses on the production dynamics of important volatile compounds typically associated with the aroma of beer. Samples were taken every 24 h after 11 serial repitchings of a single starter culture, analysed for the particular aroma compound content by distillation followed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The term "serial repitching factor' is used for the first time to support the visual evaluation of the influence of serial repitching. Results showed that the levels of methanol in the quinoa wort fermentation were only slightly higher than in barley and in practical terms independent of successive fermentation. The behaviour of acetaldehyde in quinoa was similar to that in barley. However, there was a final 2-fold lower production of some important aroma compounds compared with barley and buckwheat and for this reason quinoa cannot be recommended as a gluten-free substitute to produce a bottom-fermented beer. Regarding the buckwheat wort fermentation, a 2- to 3-times lower final acetaldehyde content than in barley is desirable, whereas a relatively high methanol content is not desirable. Barley and buckwheat showed comparable sum concentrations and similar overall profiles of some important aroma compounds. From this perspective, buckwheat appears to be a promising substitute for barley as a brewing raw material. The overall conclusions of our comprehensive study (Parts I-III) are that buckwheat shows adequate brewing properties to substitute for barley in the commercial preparation of a bottom-fermented gluten-free beer-like beverage, and yeast can be repitched at least 11 times. In contrast, quinoa in practical terms shows no substitutional potential for barley in beer; however, it has many nutritious advantages, thus the commercial preparation of a unique, bottom-fermented gluten-free non-beer-like' beverage - where the yeast could be repitched six times at most - appears feasible. Copyright (C) 2015 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling