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Document type:
journal article 
Author(s):
Heckmann, M; Teichmann, B; Schröder, U; Sprengelmeyer, R; Ceballos-Baumann, AO 
Title:
Pharmacologic denervation of frown muscles enhances baseline expression of happiness and decreases baseline expression of anger, sadness, and fear. 
Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Individuals with intense frowning are commonly perceived as expressing negative emotions. Anger, fear, and sadness are associated with corrugator ("frown") muscle activity. OBJECTIVE: We sought to study how faces were perceived by others after denervation of frown muscles with localized botulinum toxin injections for treatment of facial frown lines. METHODS: Facial photographs were taken from volunteers before and after botulinum toxin injection. These photographs were shown to viewe...    »
 
Journal title abbreviation:
J Am Acad Dermatol 
Year:
2003 
Journal volume:
49 
Journal issue:
Pages contribution:
213-6 
Language:
eng 
Print-ISSN:
0190-9622 
TUM Institution:
Neurologische Klinik und Poliklinik