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Document type:
journal article 
Author(s):
Eikermann, M; Grosse-Sundrup, M; Zaremba, S; Henry, ME; Bittner, EA; Hoffmann, U; Chamberlin, NL 
Title:
Ketamine activates breathing and abolishes the coupling between loss of consciousness and upper airway dilator muscle dysfunction. 
Abstract:
Procedural sedation is frequently performed in spontaneously breathing patients, but hypnotics and opioids decrease respiratory drive and place the upper airway at risk for collapse.In a randomized, controlled, cross-over, pharmaco-physiologic study in 12 rats, we conducted acute experiments to compare breathing and genioglossus electromyogram activity at equianesthetic concentrations of ketamine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist that combines potent analgesic with hypno...    »
 
Journal title abbreviation:
Anesthesiology 
Year:
2012 
Journal volume:
116 
Journal issue:
Pages contribution:
35-46 
Language:
eng 
Print-ISSN:
0003-3022 
TUM Institution:
sthesiologie