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journal article 
Dzijan-Horn, Marijana; Langwieser, Nicolas; Groha, Philipp; Bradaric, Christian; Linhardt, Maryam; Böttiger, Corinna; Byrne, Robert A; Steppich, Birgit; Koppara, Tobias; Gödel, Julia; Hadamitzky, Martin; Ott, Ilka; von Beckerath, Nicolas; Kastrati, Adnan; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Ibrahim, Tareq 
Safety and efficacy of a potential treatment algorithm by using manual compression repair and ultrasound-guided thrombin injection for the management of iatrogenic femoral artery pseudoaneurysm in a large patient cohort. 
Because of the risk of associated complications, femoral pseudoaneurysm (PSA) formation implies further treatment. Ultrasound-guided thrombin injection (UGTI) is becoming the accepted gold standard, but manual compression (MC) represents an established treatment option including PSAs not feasible for UGTI. This study aims to assess our experience in PSA treatment using MC or UGTI according to a potential algorithm based on morphological properties in a large patient cohort.Between January 2007 and January 2011, a total of 432 PSAs were diagnosed in 29091 consecutive patients (1.49%) undergoing femoral artery catheterization. When compressible, small PSAs (<20 mm), PSAs without clearly definable neck, PSAs directly adjacent to vessels, and PSAs with concomitant arteriovenous fistula were referred to MC (n=145, 34%). All other PSAs were treated by UGTI (n=287, 66%). Follow-up duplex scans were performed within 12 to 14 hours after manual compression therapy and within 4 to 6 hours after UGTI or by the next morning and were available for 428 patients (99.1%). The overall success rate of our institutional therapeutic approach was 97.2%, which was achieved by 178 MC- and 357 UGTI-procedures, respectively. Procedural complications occurred in 5 cases (1.4%) after UGTI and in 3 cases (1.7%) after MC, respectively. The treatment algorithm was not successful in 12 patients, whereas 2 PSAs (0.5%) were successfully excluded by implantation of a covered stent-graft, and 10 patients necessitated surgical intervention (2.3%), which was associated with a high complication rate (30%).The presented treatment algorithm facilitates effective and safe PSA elimination. 
Circ Cardiovasc Interv 
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Klinik für Herz- und Kreislauferkrankungen; I. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik