Friedrich, B; Müller, F; Feiler, S; Schöller, K; Plesnila, N
Experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage causes early and long-lasting microarterial constriction and microthrombosis: an in-vivo microscopy study.
Early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is characterized by a severe, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)-independent reduction in cerebral blood flow suggesting alterations on the level of cerebral microvessels. Therefore, we aimed to use in-vivo imaging to investigate the cerebral microcirculation after experimental SAH. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced in C57/BL6 mice by endovascular perforation. Pial arterioles and venules (10 to 80 ?m diameter) were examined using in-vivo fluorescence microscopy, 3, 6, and 72 hours after SAH. Venular diameter or flow was not affected by SAH, while>70% of arterioles constricted by 22% to 33% up to 3 days after hemorrhage (P<0.05 versus sham). The smaller the investigated arterioles, the more pronounced the constriction (r(2)=0.92, P<0.04). Approximately 30% of constricted arterioles were occluded by microthrombi and the frequency of arteriolar microthrombosis correlated with the degree of constriction (r(2)=0.93, P<0.03). The current study demonstrates that SAH induces microarterial constrictions and microthrombosis in vivo. These findings may explain the early CPP-independent decrease in cerebral blood flow after SAH and may therefore serve as novel targets for the treatment of early perfusion deficits after SAH.